Hooligan firms (also known as football firms) are groups that participate in football hooliganism or other sports-related hooliganism. For this reason, football hooligans “have built upon this uncompromisingly physical attitude to games and turned it into a different, more aggressive [...] subculture” (ibid.). Studienarbeit,
To be more precise, Russell points out that such features are especially “central to the more aggressive terrace cultures and to hooligan groups” (Russell 1999: 17). From the 1880s onwards, such incidents – especially pitch invasions – started to occur more frequently.
Hausarbeit, Die Anlässe bei denen Vorfälle es in die Presse schaffen sind
Whatever the case may be, football hooliganism in England has changed significantly after the Heysel and Hillsborough disasters in 1985 and 1989, where hundreds of football fans were badly injured and some of them even killed after crowd disturbances. Football Hooligans in England: A Subculture Struggling for Power, Respect and Male Identity | Thomas Schachtebeck | ISBN: 9783640808861 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon.
Hence, football hooliganism “has been called the ‘English Disease’ on many occasions” (Pearson 2007: 1).The reason why the phenomenon of hooliganism is so strongly linked to football is because this kind of sport is seen “as an appropriate venue for [...] aggressive rivalries, partly because of the working class roots and traditions of the game but also because of the culturally prescribed ‘territorial’ and masculine values which are intrinsic to it.” (Sir Norman Chester Centre for Football Research 2001: 1) Thus, there is no doubt that typical attitudes and emotions representing “true masculinity” (Holt 1989: 8), such as the celebration of physical strength and the loyalty to ‘mates’ or to a specific territory, are traditional and popular features of football culture. However, since the 1960s, football has also been intensively confronted – like no other kind of sport in Europe - with a very severe form of spectator violence, the so-called hooliganism.
21 Seiten Pearson 2007: 1).
Bei einem Besuch eines Spiels in England erlebt man also nicht nur den 'Football at home', sondern auch 'Fan Culture at home', was in gleichem Maße reizvoll ist.
Pearson 2007: 1). Studienarbeit, Therefore, “hooligan” is often seen as a synonym for “football hooligan”. People want to see one side on top and the other side humiliated, and they forget that victory gained through cheating or through the intervention of the crowd is meaningless.
In den Stadien auf der Insel entstanden die Fangesänge und der Hooliganismus. In “The Sporting Spirit”, George Orwell made the observation that “[a]s soon as strong feelings of rivalry are aroused, the notion of playing the game according to the rules always vanishes. 20 Seiten However, if one thinks of a typical sport representing Orwell’s understanding of the spirit of sports activities, football is often regarded an excellent paradigm because of its very aggressive and even martial character. 20 Seiten Interpretation oder Referat Since then, football-related crowd disorder calmed down.
die Craven Cottage zu füllen.Alleine Derbies immer etwas Besonderes sind. Masterarbeit,
Einzig der Fulham FC hat des öfteren Schwierigkeiten ).In all modern industrial societies, a football hooligan is typically – but not exclusively – “a young lower-class male, frequently but not usually unemployed” (Guttmann 1986: 168). Alle verfügen über eine solide
Die Verlagsseiten GRIN.com, Hausarbeiten.de und Diplomarbeiten24 bieten für Hochschullehrer, Absolventen und Studenten die ideale Plattform, wissenschaftliche Texte Usually, such “high-profile disorder between firms” (Pearson 2007: 1) takes places far away from the ground, and “normal” fans are not affected by it. Additionaly, Holt emphasises that “[m]iddle-class ideals of ‘playing the game’ have always been alien to rough working-class culture” (Holt 1989: 339). Since then, football-related crowd disorder calmed down. To be more precise, Russell points out that such features are especially “central to the more aggressive terrace cultures and to hooligan groups” (Russell 1999: 17). ist nicht nur das Mutterland des Fussballs, England ist auch das Mutterland
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